The Fascinating History, Art, and Science of Glassblowing
Glass is not an invention of our species. We discovered glass in nature. You are probably familiar with obsidian or volcanic glass, but that is only one of the many naturally occurring phenomena. Our planet has tektite, basaltic glass in the deep seas, and several variants classified as frictionites.
What we did invent is a variety of glassmaking techniques. The plethora of glasses we know about today is a consequence of experimentations and evolutions through at least three millennia, if not more. One such fascinating chapter of our world is the history, art, and science of glassblowing.
An Introduction to Glassblowing
What’s common among the following?
- Magik Chroma Cube by Jack Storms
- Bloom by David Patchen
- Lifelike Marina Animals by Raven Skyriver
- Knitted Sculptures by Carol Milne
- Lemon/Red Crown by Harvey Litteton
- Summer Sun and Sapphire Star by Dale Chihuly
The answer is glassblowing.
The aforementioned artists used their own techniques, of course. That artistry is also a specialty of glassblowing because it is conducive for what you can imagine and create, unlike the modern assembly lines in manufacturing facilities.
The Origin of Glassblowing
Glassblowing is a unique technique of blowing air into molten glass to inflate it to form a bubble. The inflated and hot molten glass bubble is then shaped to create different forms as it cools. Glassblowing is the foundation of custom glass pipes, whether bongs or hookahs.
The earliest glass making methods can be traced back to Mesopotamia and Egypt, circa 2,600 BCE. Somewhat evolved glassmaking techniques date back to India, circa 1,700 BCE. Glassblowing, in particular, is believed to have originated in Syria.
Modern archaeological studies suggest that glassblowing became a properly defined and practiced technique in Syria, sometime around 100 BCE. However, the mechanisms must have been around for ages before it became an industry of sorts.
The Romans got introduced to glassblowing circa 100 CE. As was characteristic of the Roman Empire at the time, glassblowing became a full-fledged industry in parts of Europe under their regime.
What the world refers to as Venetian glass is essentially an outcome of this ancient technique. The style uses hot molten glass and free-flowing techniques facilitated by gravity, humble tools, and centrifugal force, in some cases, to create unique objects.
Glassblowing is still a novel technique because it allows unmatched freedom to the creator or artist to form shapes that are nearly impossible with mechanized assembly lines.
The Emergence of Glassblowing Industry
The Romans industrialized glassblowing. There was a time when Venice was a hub of glassblowers. In due course, different methods of glassblowing evolved and craftsmen perfected those techniques. Two prominent examples are mold-blowing and modern glassblowing.
Mold-blowing shot to fame in Rome and the rest of the Empire due to the possibility of shaping the molten glass into a predetermined shape. Metal or wooden mold was used to carve glass into specific forms.
This method also simplified glassblowing as the mold played a more prominent role than a glassblower or glassworker’s skills. The Romans used single and multiple molds to create myriad objects through glassblowing, from tableware to storage vessels, and more.
The Contemporary Evolution of Glassblowing
Modern glassblowing is exquisitely diverse and experimental, albeit the foundation remains the same. Smoking pipes, artifacts, figurines, showpieces, and all kinds of structures are created using some version of glassblowing.
Since the 19th century, glassblowing has been combined with other techniques to create awesome designs. The studio glass movement that originated in the United States is today a phenomenon across Europe, Asia, Australia, and most of the world.
Studio glass involves glassblowing along with casting, fusing, and flameworking, among others. The studio glass movement coincided with the emergence and growing dominance of modernism. Both modernism and minimalism influenced the glassblowing evolution in recent decades.
The 20th century witnessed further evolution of glassblowing, especially with the advent of bespoke studios where artists, designers, and creators exercised complete freedom to make one-of-a-kind objects.
Harvey Littleton, the anointed ‘Father of the Studio Glass Movement’, deserves significant credit for popularizing glassblowing and incorporating modernism.
However, the glassblowing history in the new world dates back to Jamestown in Virginia, which was the first permanent settlement or English colony of the London Company.
Today, both Jamestown and the ancient glassblowing phenomenon may be fascinating tidbits of history. Yet, the art and science of glassblowing thrives.
From the 1878 Exposition Universelle held in Paris through the 1962 Toledo Museum of Art workshop hosted by Harvey Littleton and Dominick to the art nouveau styles of glassblowing, and now the numerous individual techniques, we are perhaps still at the nascent stage of this evolving story.